How did dinosaurs get so big? Scientists now have an answer

Skeletal reconstruction of the unaysaurid sauropodomorph Macrocollum (CAPPA/UFSM 0001b) showing vertebral elements along the vertebral column and a possible reconstruction of the air sac systems involved.  (a) Pneumatic posterior cervical vertebra and cross-sectional CT slice b.  (c) Pneumatic anterior dorsal vertebra with cross-sectional CT slice d and details of the pneumatic opening e.  (f) detail of the pneumatic opening in a reconstructed 3D model of the element.  g) anterior cervical element (pneumatic).  (h) No traces of PSP in the posterior dorsal vertebra.  The sacral series (i) as well as the anterior (k) and middle caudal (j) series are pneumatic.  a, g, h, j, and k are in left side view.  c, e, and f are in right lateral view.  i'm in the back view.  ABD, abdominal diverticula;  CER, cervical diverticulum;  LUN, lung;  pf, pneumatic openings.  The reconstruction was done by Rodrigo T. Miller.  Scale bar for skeletal reconstruction = 500 mm;  a–j = 20 mm.

SAO PAULO, Brazil — How did dinosaurs turn from small creatures into colossal giants? Researchers at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) in São Paulo state, Brazil, believe they finally have an answer. In a new study, they explain that the air sac formed the ancient dinosaur Macrocollum itaquii is the key to understanding the … Read more